Advances in artificial intelligence accompany societal transformation

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The term artificial intelligence was first used in 1956 by the American scientist Marvin MINSKY (1). He then calls artificial intelligence machines that use mental processes to function. AI is now a complex, high-stakes topic. Some wonder if AI will one day overtake and replace humans. Indeed, the biggest fear is the place that AI will take in our lives tomorrow. The role of AI in companies, impact on employment…

On October 9th, the MasterClass on Artificial Intelligence held at the Fin and Tech Summit. With the participation of three renowned AI experts: Pierre BLANC; founding partner at Althing, Benoît LEBLANC; AI professor at the National Higher School of Cognitics in Bordeaux, and Alkéos MICHAIL, Chief Technical Officer at AgenT.

Fin and Tech Summit is an event about the evolution of technology in the service of finance, founded by Louis Alexandre DE FROISSARD and organized at Kedge Business School. For the past 5 years, conferences, debates, workshops and workshops have punctuated the reflections between professionals, journalites, curious people… Many stakeholders from various companies and startups were present such as Paypal, Unconventional Ventures, Retail Arkéa or Obvy.

The evolution of artificial intelligence, a method of prediction

Artificial intelligence is defined as a recognition of shapes in a continuous stream of pre-entered data in a machine.

With datafication ie the dataing of the world, the public authorities measure the political stakes related to AI was able to offer to their respective countries. France is no exception. Indeed, France has all the assets that would allow it to impose itself on an international scale. Thus began the introduction of AI in certain sectors such ashealth, the environment and transport (2).

Man now defines the functioning of AI as such: artificial intelligence is subject to multiple visual recognitions (text, image, video, etc…),) facial and vocal (sound, music, voice, etc.) that it records. All of these items are collected in a database. They are then interpreted and translated by the machine.

This process automates the decision by triggering an action corresponding to the recognition already collected by the machine beforehand. To make it simpler, artificial intelligence sees or hears information that it collects in its data to associate it with a specific action.

Human training for the machine

We must not forget that at the origin of this process comes man. It is the human who drives the machine and corrects it. This allows at some stage of collected data that the AI can significantly correct the margin of error. Fairer, more efficient than human capabilities can.

Thus, artificial intelligence has the role of unloading humans from the accumulation of data. It is for this purpose that AI finds its place perfectly in the development of business activity.

These technological and digital advances now affect all types of companies. The goal now is to have an interdisciplinary approach to artificial intelligence. The digital and IT businesses are no longer the only ones affected. All trades and disciplines are.

The AI will optimize the time and quality of the services provided by the company. This will be possible through cognitive mutation. In fact, the machine itself takes care of certain tasks of receiving or taking into account information. A rebalancing operation will then take place thanks to the AI.

Finally, the goal would be for AI to acquire a predictive capability. Indeed, thanks to “machine learning”, AI would be able to correct itself. This is called Machine Learning. This would allow him, depending on the situation, to predict the final decision. Thus, it could act in advance on the final result of an acknowledgement that has not yet taken place.

New AI resources lifted by digital mutation in France

In its vision of interdisciplinary scope, the state must find ways to encourage companies to adopt AI. Today’s goal is to bring AI closer to business.

As a result, investment has increased significantly since 2012. At the time, they amounted to around $415 million for AI startups. Today, they represent $5 billion worldwide (3).

The French state is one of those public authorities that are deploying important resources in artificial intelligence: 1.5 billion euros given on the strategy of artificial intelligence (4).

This financial project has three objectives. The first is to train and retain talent through the creation and multiplication of research structures specialized in artificial intelligence.

The second objective is the dissemination, i.e. the incentive links of the companies. Finally, the latter responds to the ethical aspect that artificial intelligence puts into play. Indeed, AI asks a collective reflection on standards. For example, facial recognition or recognition may, for example, disturb some people ethically. It is estimated that it takes about 20 years to overcome certain barriers. In this sense, France has set up artificial intelligence awareness cells. These will allow many people to understand the digital transformation of society.

Jobs and AI, panic on board

According to the report by France Strategy (5), 47% of jobs could be threatened by the arrival of AI in business. In addition to the fact that digitalization has already transformed the job market.

A change in the trades has already taken place. Let us take the example of radiologists. The best-trained artificial eye is sufficient to detect an abnormality on a radio. Nevertheless, the radiologist remains essential to the analysis of the radio. Moreover, it is the only one to hold the role of responsibility.

Thus, AI is an obvious aid to the field of health and medicine. It helps human expertise. AI and humans complement each other in order to optimize their actions as much as possible.

The French people need an awareness on artificial intelligence to dispel fears and areas of questioning. To understand the challenge that AI poses for professional activity, one must take into account the social and societal environment. Indeed, the ageing of the population is already leading to a gradual transfer of activity. With advances in artificial intelligence, industries will all be affected by digital transformation. It is the combination of human and machine capabilities that will achieve near-perfect performance.

Sources

FinTech Summit news release

  1. Steps toward artificial intelligence by Marvin MINKSY – 1961
  2. Cedric VILLANI’s Report on Artificial Intelligence, March 28, 2018
  3. French Government Artificial Intelligence Summary Report 2017
  4. The report on artificial intelligence and the work of France Strategy of March 2018
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